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Episteme Spacecraft Project & Molecular Historicism

 

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Episteme Spacecraft Project & Molecular Historicism
In 2010 I wrote a satire piece about the determinisms of religion and science entitled “How to make a spacecraft” where I proposed the fundamentals of the Episteme Spacecraft Project and the three tests. 
The idea is that we could take the life specific data of a living organism and correlate it with its DNA and form a database with as many species as possible and in turn when looking at a new organism (even an alien organism) we could program that database to produce a DNA from other life specific data. The connection point of data from data is symbiosis and the aim is to employ the DNA as a symbiosis based operating system that has ability to convert different types of life specific data to each other.
In this e-book you will also find my philosophical reasoning that I call Molecular Historicism as a basis for and as a result of the Episteme Spacecraft project. Molecular Historicism refers to DNA as the primary element because DNA refers to molecule as future action, as life. I think that every living thing has an individual reality of time and life could be considered the potential of every atom. As such we could talk about a unified field & time of life in the universe pulsing to a universal symbiosis.

Table of Contents

Episteme Spacecraft Project
1) What am I doing here, the undertaking;
Visions of the Future from Biological Sciences
2) An Introductive Summary
Correspondence with the Editor of Journal of Cosmology
3) The First Test; The Biological Pi
Research Related to Approach and Logic of Relation
DNA to Image
An Example of Correlation of Image to Sound
The use of DNA for Purposes other than interaction within the cell
DNA imaged with electron microscope for the first time
4) The Second Test; DNA of Earth
The Approximation
Life Possible Frequency Isolation; DNA of Earth
Research Related to Approach and Logic of Relation
NASA Earth Science Data
Using satellite images to detect cellular organisms
Using satellite images to detect bark beetle outbreaks in forests
Spectral band discrimination for species observed from hyperspectral remote sensing
Example of Reverse Engineering Project Working With Biological Data
5) The Third Test; Standard Deviation for Planets
Standard Deviation for a Specific Planet or Moon
The Biological Pi; Perfecting the DNA of Earth
Symbiosis; The Premise of the Episteme Spacecraft Thesis
6) Blueprint for a Consortium
7) Forum Entries
Molecular Historicism
The Foundations of the Idea of Molecular Historicism
What is life?
What is nature?
What is the body and particularly the human body?
The Critical Applications of the Idea of Molecular Historicism
Prof. Stephen Hawking and the question of the brain as a machine
Thinking together with life; Justice for the Scope of Life
The Question of Entropy; what is Entropy to Life?
The boundaries of the body and the reaches of the atomic body
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s)
Naturality of Nature
The Nature Shaped by Humans
The Particle Collusion Experiments at LHC at CERN
Naturality of Nature
The Nature Shaped by Humans
A new fate; so where is free will?
The Biological Efficiency & Value of Evolution & Reasons for Biomimicry
A Hum in a Roaring World

Featured

Çay Bahçesine Düşerken / Falling to a Tea House Garden

“Falling to a Tea House Garden” is a selection of my poetry in Turkish and English that I have been writing for the last 24 years and it consists of three parts. The first part “Couples/Çiftetelli” are Turkish
and English poems that I associated together due to meaning, period or form. I originally wrote the first poem in this first part in English and then translated it to Turkish. Apart from this one poem, none of the poems have been translated into the other language. Among my muses are cinema, music, song lyrics, novels, the history of science, arts and religion, aphorisms, idioms, proverbs, caricatures, and folklore. In my poems, I dwell on the topics of nature, philosophy, human and the tragic situation. Here, there are things that I do not want to repeat in life and heeds to myself as well as the truths I have found walking the roads that I did and the experiences I gained. When I write I leave little information with regards to date and time but the second and third parts of the book, “Turkish Poems” and “English Poems” are more or less in a chronological order.

Alphan Vardarlı
A poet, a researcher and a self-trained painter born in 1978. Graduated from University of Kent at Canterbury in the UK, from the Department of Politics and International Relations in 1999. Went onto study art and art history in Florence, Italy. Attended Philosophy and Cultural Analysis M.A. program at the University of Amsterdam.
Been writing poetry since 15 years old. In his 20’s he collaborated with philosophy, logic and anthropology students from the University of Amsterdam to publish an online magazine and a zine, where his poetry, drawings, and collages took part. In his 30’s he took to the stage reading his poetry in Spoken Word İstanbul and the poetry events of different literature groups in Çanakkale. Çanakkale Olay Newspaper also printed his poems in the newspaper’s art pages. Been painting since 2000. In 2005 exhibited for the first time at a mixed exhibition at Siemens Art Gallery in İstanbul. First personal painting exhibition was held in the Turkish Culture Ministry Gallery, in Çanakkale in 2016.

“Çay Bahçesine Düşerken” benim 24 yıldır yazdığım Türkçe ve İngilizce şiirlerden bir seçkidir ve üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. “Couples/Çiftetelli” anlam, dönem ya da düzen olarak birbirine yakıştırdığım Türkçe ve İngilizce şiirlerden eşli bir seçkidir. Bu ilk bölümdeki ilk şiir İngilizce yazılmış ve tarafımdan Türkçeye çevrilmiştir. Kitapta bu şiir dışında hiçbir şiir diğer dile çeviri değildir. Sinema, müzik, şarkı sözleri, romanlar, bilim, sanat ve din tarihi, özdeyişler, deyimler, atasözleri, karikatürler ve folklordan ilham alıyorum ve şiirlerde doğa, felsefe, insan ve trajik durum gibi konular işliyorum. Yürüdüğüm yollar ve edindiğim deneyimlerle bulduğum gerçekler kadar, yaşamda tekrar etmek istemediklerim ve kendime uyarılar da var burada. Nadiren tarih attığımdan şiirlerimde dönem bilgisine az rastlanır, ancak kitabın ikinci ve üçüncü bölümleri olan “Türkçe Şiirler” ve “İngilizce Şiirler” aşağı yukarı kronolojik bir sıra izlenilerek dizilmiştir.

Alphan Vardarlı
1978 doğumlu bir şair, araştırmacı ve alaylı bir ressam. Eğitim için gittiği İngiltere’de University of Kent at Canterbury’den Siyasal Bilimler ve Uluslararası İlişkiler bölümünden 1999 yılında mezun oldu. İtalya, Floransa’da sanat ve sanat tarihi eğitimleri aldı. Hollanda’da Amsterdam Üniversitesi’nde Felsefe ve Kültürel Analiz yüksek lisans programına katıldı.
15 yaşından beri şiir yazıyor. 20’lerinde Amsterdam Üniversitesi’nden bir grup felsefe, mantık ve antropoloji
öğrencisi ile çıkarttıkları internet dergisinde ve fanzinde şiirleri, çizimleri ve kolajları yer aldı. 30’larında İstanbul’da
Spoken Word gecelerinde ve Çanakkale’de çeşitli edebiyat etkinliklerinde sahne aldı ve şiiirlerini okudu. Ayrıca şiirleri Çanakkale Olay Gazetesi’nde sanat sayfasında yayınlandı.
2000’lerden beri resim yapıyor. 2005’de İstanbul’da, Siemens Sanat Galerisi’nde ilk karma sergisine katıldı. İlk kişisel resim sergisini 2016’da Çanakkale’de Devlet Güzel Sanatlar Galerisi’nde açtı.

 

Book Purchase Link:

http://www.kitapyurdu.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=446167

http://www.dr.com.tr/Kitap/Cay-Bahcesine-Duserken-Falling-to-a-Tea-House-Garden/Edebiyat/Siir/Turk-Siiri/urunno=0001738513001

http://www.idefix.com/Kitap/Cay-Bahcesine-Duserken-Falling-to-a-Tea-House-Garden/Edebiyat/Siir/Turk-Siiri/urunno=0001738513001

 

Featured

How to make a spacecraft / Uzay gemisi nasıl yapılır

This is my facebook page containing hundreds of links to modern and current scientific research. Please like and follow the page!

Episteme Spacecraft
3 days ago
Episteme Spacecraft Project & Molecular Historicism, an Ebook by Alphan VARDARLI

"Episteme Spacecraft Project & Molecular Historicism" out now as an ebook. https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/779608

The Episteme Spacecraft Project is based on the idea that we could take the life specific data of a living organism and correlate it with its DNA and form a database with as many species as possible ... See more

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3 days ago
Researchers in Japan are showing way to decode thoughts

Making news this month is a study by researchers the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) and Kyoto University in Japan, having built a neural network that not only ... See more

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6 days ago
The Scientist

Because this phenomenon appears in both mice and flies, “[t]here must be something really fundamental about it." http://bit.ly/2DCgoQC

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2 weeks ago
MIT Researchers Develop EQ-Radio to Read Your Emotions, From a Distance. What Are the Ethics?

Researchers at MIT have developed a system that can read a person's emotions, even hidden ones, at a distance.

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3 weeks ago
The Science Museum And The Natural History Museum Are Fighting On Twitter, And It's Amazing

London has two of the most glorious and wonderful museums the world has ever seen: the Natural History Museum – full of dinosaurs and volcanoes – and the S

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4 weeks ago
Çay Bahçesine Düşerken / Falling to a Tea House Garden (Poetry Performance)

Alphan Vardarlı Şiir Performansı - Poetry Performance @ MAHAL, Çanakkale,on 17:00 23.12.2017
Video taken by Turçin Zorman, edited by Alphan Vardarlı https://youtu.be/Ba3NDcGLQw4

Alphan Vardarlı Şiir Performansı - Poetry Performance @ Mahal, Çanakkale,on 17:00 23.12.2017 Video taken by Turçin Zorman, edited by Alphan Vardarlı. “Çay Ba...

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1 month ago
Alphan Vardarlı Şiir Performansı - Poetry Performance

Cumartesi günü katılamayanlar için instagramda canlı yayında olacağım.
I will be live on instagram for those who cannot make it on saturday.

https://www.instagram.com/alphanvardarli/

------Please Scroll Down for English Content-----

“Çay Bahçesine Düşerken” benim 24 yıldır yazdığım Türkçe ve İngilizce şiirlerden bir seçkidir ve üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. ... See more

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1 month ago
Alphan Vardarlı Şiir Performansı - Poetry Performance

I will be reading poetry from my book "Falling to a Tea House Garden"
"Çay Bahçesine Düşerken" şiir kitabımdan okuyacağım.
17:00 / 23.12.2017 @ MAHAL

------Please Scroll Down for English Content-----

“Çay Bahçesine Düşerken” benim 24 yıldır yazdığım Türkçe ve İngilizce şiirlerden bir seçkidir ve üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. ... See more

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1 month ago
I fucking love science

Vinnytsia explains on Reddit how they made the animation, using information from the Natural Earth Oceans and Lakes and Reservoir data sets. They also used an open source government Global Relief ... See more

This is fascinating.

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1 month ago
New robots can see into their future

https://techxplore.com/news/2017-12-robots-future.html

University of California, Berkeley, researchers have developed a robotic learning technology that enables robots to imagine the future of their actions so they can figure out how to manipulate ... See more

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Featured

derler ki

#derlerki Masalcılar Buluşması, Mardin Müzesi sergisi için 2 iş.

1)
Derler ki, can ile başlayan benzerlik, simbiyoz halkaları ile bağlanırmış her bir sistemdeki kamp ateşine, ve güneşin soğurduğu ışık altında bizler ne isek, başka bir yıldızın ateşine ısınan başkaları da kamp ateşinden kamp ateşine bir şarkı bir masal kadar uzakmış…
(Pleksi üzerine Güneş spektrumu ve DNA fotoğrafları baskı, 4numara elek üzerine yerleşim ve içe şerit led döşeme)

2)
Derler ki, azınlıktan anneannelerinin ellerini öpmeyen diller, etmedikleri hürmet için kravat takıp imzaladıkları ile kirlenirmiş, bir güzelleme, bir şifayı bildiğinden seç denilince, bir amerikan naylon gecelik üstüne ilmik ilmik, sabrın batıya el pençe divan duran kelimeleri işlenirmiş, olduğu gibi “aziz aşk”, “as is love”…
(Kasnak, kumaş, iplik, iğne)

 

Damdan avluya düşen hikayeler: Mardin Masalcılar Buluşması

 

Featured

Aslanlı Şehirden Merhaba!

“The Lion and The Monkey”, Alphan Vardarlı, Acrylic on wood board, L’viv, 2017

Durumsalcılar faşizm iki insan arasında başlar der. Kadına layık olmaya çalışan bir erkek, olgunluğu arayan ve yetişkin olmayı isteyen bireydir aslında ve içindeki ve dışındaki iki türlü faşisti ve faşizmin hayaletlerini tespit etmeli ve onları yok etmelidir.

Kalıplaşmış ortaklık söylemleri üzerinden hak iddiaları bir hayaletidir faşizmin ve bu hayalet yarattığı roller ve güç ilişkileri üzerinden kişinin içini boşaltır ve ona aidiyet ile birlikte bireyselliğin sorumluluklarından kurtulmayı satar. Tabi içimiz asla unutmaz ve kendimizi hissetmek isteriz ve hissedemediğimizde kendimizi bulduğumuz durumların uçurumlarından yani rollerin ve iddiaların bizi götürebildiği absürt sonlardan kendimizi aşağı atabilir pekala cinnet geçirebiliriz, sadece hissetmek için kendimize ve etrafımızdakilere zarar verebiliriz. Bütün bunları da uyurgezer bir şoför gibi yapabilir ancak döngüsünden kurtulamayabiliriz.

Ve… trafikte, ki kuantum hareketinde olduğu gibi tüm yük en iyi ve ayık şoförlerin omuzuna düşer, başkalarının hatalarına rağmen ve onlarla beraber var olur iken onlar sizin ustalıklarınızdan edilgen olarak sadece beslenir ve hatta uykularının derinliklerine göre size daha da yaslanabilirler.

Ancak durumlar tarafından bakmak daha acayip ve zordur, çünkü durumun farkında olan hemen herkes bir film sorgulamasındadır ve filmi yaşayan başkaları ise rollerini, rolü, tiyatroyu bilmeden büyü bozmaktadırlar. Trajedi, büyüyü ve korkuyu, yaradılış yerine köken hakkında konuşan felsefeci devlerin sırtlarında ve herkese açık bir sahnede yendi, açıklanabilir dünyanın açıklamasının, prospektüsünün, kütüphanesinin bir hayatta bitirilemez oluşu ve aynı zamanda bu bilginin hala ölümü yenememiş olması, hatta teknoloji adı altında kullandığımız tüm eşyanın hayatımızda yeri olduğu kadar nasıl çalıştıkları, üretildikleri ve geliştirildikleri ile ilgili orta çağı aşan cehaletimiz dahi sürdürülebilir bir dünyadan kopartıldığımız görülemez alanları belirliyor.

Kadın hem kendi hem de çocukları için iki kere bilgedir. Yani hem kendi geleceğini hem de çocuğunun geleceğini düşünmek zorunda, düşünmese bile dünya ona bunu unutmayan beden gibi hatırlatmakta, çeri çöpten ayırmak zorunda, vaatlerdeki yalanları içten içe en iyi o bilmektedir. Vaat diyorum çünkü bu bir erkek egemen dünyadır ve dünyanın sürdürülebilirliğinden çok yaşananın kalitesinin dünyayı yakmaya değip değmeyeceği ile ilgilidir. Kadının batıllaşmasına sebep arayanlar nükleer bombalarla nasıl bir gelecek vadettiklerini düşünmelidirler. Yani erkekteki gelişim, olgunlaşma, yetişkinlik içerideki duygusal dalgalanmanın dışarıdaki durum ile ilişkisini kurduğu zaman ortaya çıkmakta ancak bu ilişkiyi çoğu zaman kendini kaybettikten sonra kurmaktadır.

Researchers in Japan are showing way to decode thoughts


 

“The team has created a first-of-its-kind algorithm that can interpret and accurately reproduce images seen or imagined by a person,” wrote Alexandru Micu in ZME Science.

Their paper, “Deep image reconstruction from human brain activity,” is on bioRxiv. The authors are Guohua Shen, Tomoyasu Horikawa, Kei Majima, and Yukiyasu Kamitani.

Vanessa Ramirez, associate editor of Singularity Hub, was one of several writers on tech watching sites who reported on the study. The writers noted that this would mark a difference from other research involved in deconstructing images based on pixels and basic shapes.

“Trying to tame a computer to decode mental images isn’t a new idea,” said Micu. “However, all previous systems have been limited in scope and ability. Some can only handle narrow domains like facial shape, while others can only rebuild images from preprogrammed images or categories.”

What is special here, Micu said, is that “their new algorithm can generate new, recognizable images from scratch.”

The study team has been exploring deep image reconstruction. Micu quoted the senior author of the study. “We believe that a deep neural network is good proxy for the brain’s hierarchical processing,” said Yukiyasu Kamitani.

Overview of deep image reconstruction is shown. The pixels’ values of the input image are optimized so that the DNN features of the image are similar to those decoded from fMRI activity. A deep generator network (DGN) is optionally combined with the DNN to produce natural-looking images, in which optimization is performed at the input space of the DGN. Credit: bioRxiv (2017). DOI: 10.1101/240317

Abstract

Machine learning-based analysis of human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) patterns has enabled the visualization of perceptual content. However, it has been limited to the reconstruction with low-level image bases (Miyawaki et al., 2008; Wen et al., 2016) or to the matching to exemplars (Naselaris et al., 2009; Nishimoto et al., 2011). Recent work showed that visual cortical activity can be decoded (translated) into hierarchical features of a deep neural network (DNN) for the same input image, providing a way to make use of the information from hierarchical visual features (Horikawa & Kamitani, 2017). Here, we present a novel image reconstruction method, in which the pixel values of an image are optimized to make its DNN features similar to those decoded from human brain activity at multiple layers. We found that the generated images resembled the stimulus images (both natural images and artificial shapes) and the subjective visual content during imagery. While our model was solely trained with natural images, our method successfully generalized the reconstruction to artificial shapes, indicating that our model indeed reconstructs or generates images from brain activity, not simply matches to exemplars. A natural image prior introduced by another deep neural network effectively rendered semantically meaningful details to reconstructions by constraining reconstructed images to be similar to natural images. Furthermore, human judgment of reconstructions suggests the effectiveness of combining multiple DNN layers to enhance visual quality of generated images. The results suggest that hierarchical visual information in the brain can be effectively combined to reconstruct perceptual and subjective images.

Alphan Vardarlı Şiir Performansı – Poetry Performance @ Mahal, Çanakkale, Turkey

Cumartesi, 23 Aralık saat 17:00-19:00 
Saturday, December 23 at 5 PM – 7 PM

https://www.facebook.com/events/184401082145502/

——Please Scroll Down for English Content—–

“Çay Bahçesine Düşerken” benim 24 yıldır yazdığım Türkçe ve İngilizce şiirlerden bir seçkidir ve üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. “Couples/Çiftetelli” anlam, dönem ya da düzen olarak birbirine yakıştırdığım Türkçe ve İngilizce şiirlerden eşli bir seçkidir. Bu ilk bölümdeki ilk şiir İngilizce yazılmış ve tarafımdan Türkçeye çevrilmiştir. Kitapta bu şiir dışında hiçbir şiir diğer dile çeviri değildir. Sinema, müzik, şarkı sözleri, romanlar, bilim, sanat ve din tarihi, özdeyişler, deyimler, atasözleri, karikatürler ve folklordan ilham alıyorum ve şiirlerde doğa, felsefe, insan ve trajik durum gibi konular işliyorum. Yürüdüğüm yollar ve edindiğim deneyimlerle bulduğum gerçekler kadar, yaşamda tekrar etmek istemediklerim ve kendime uyarılar da var burada. Nadiren tarih attığımdan şiirlerimde dönem bilgisine az rastlanır, ancak kitabın ikinci ve üçüncü bölümleri olan “Türkçe Şiirler” ve “İngilizce Şiirler” aşağı yukarı kronolojik bir sıra izlenilerek dizilmiştir.

Alphan Vardarlı
1978 doğumlu bir şair, araştırmacı ve alaylı bir ressam. Eğitim için gittiği İngiltere’de University of Kent at Canterbury’den Siyasal Bilimler ve Uluslararası İlişkiler bölümünden 1999 yılında mezun oldu. İtalya, Floransa’da sanat ve sanat tarihi eğitimleri aldı. Hollanda’da Amsterdam Üniversitesi’nde Felsefe ve Kültürel Analiz yüksek lisans programına katıldı.
15 yaşından beri şiir yazıyor. 20’lerinde Amsterdam Üniversitesi’nden bir grup felsefe, mantık ve antropoloji
öğrencisi ile çıkarttıkları internet dergisinde ve fanzinde şiirleri, çizimleri ve kolajları yer aldı. 30’larında İstanbul’da
Spoken Word gecelerinde ve Çanakkale’de çeşitli edebiyat etkinliklerinde sahne aldı ve şiiirlerini okudu. Ayrıca şiirleri Çanakkale Olay Gazetesi’nde sanat sayfasında yayınlandı.
2000’lerden beri resim yapıyor. 2005’de İstanbul’da, Siemens Sanat Galerisi’nde ilk karma sergisine katıldı. İlk kişisel resim sergisini 2016’da Çanakkale’de Devlet Güzel Sanatlar Galerisi’nde açtı.

“Falling to a Tea House Garden” is a selection of my poetry in Turkish and English that I have been writing for the last 24 years and it consists of three parts. The first part “Couples/Çiftetelli” are Turkish
and English poems that I associated together due to meaning, period or form. I originally wrote the first poem in this first part in English and then translated it to Turkish. Apart from this one poem, none of the poems have been translated into the other language. Among my muses are cinema, music, song lyrics, novels, the history of science, arts and religion, aphorisms, idioms, proverbs, caricatures, and folklore. In my poems, I dwell on the topics of nature, philosophy, human and the tragic situation. Here, there are things that I do not want to repeat in life and heeds to myself as well as the truths I have found walking the roads that I did and the experiences I gained. When I write I leave little information with regards to date and time but the second and third parts of the book, “Turkish Poems” and “English Poems” are more or less in a chronological order.

Alphan Vardarlı
A poet, a researcher and a self-trained painter born in 1978. Graduated from University of Kent at Canterbury in the UK, from the Department of Politics and International Relations in 1999. Went onto study art and art history in Florence, Italy. Attended Philosophy and Cultural Analysis M.A. program at the University of Amsterdam.
Been writing poetry since 15 years old. In his 20’s he collaborated with philosophy, logic and anthropology students from the University of Amsterdam to publish an online magazine and a zine, where his poetry, drawings, and collages took part. In his 30’s he took to the stage reading his poetry in Spoken Word İstanbul and the poetry events of different literature groups in Çanakkale. Çanakkale Olay Newspaper also printed his poems in the newspaper’s art pages. Been painting since 2000. In 2005 exhibited for the first time at a mixed exhibition at Siemens Art Gallery in İstanbul. First personal painting exhibition was held in the Turkish Culture Ministry Gallery, in Çanakkale in 2016.

www.alphan.net

We do not begin nor end at the borders of our skin…

The brain has a weak electrical force around it that transmits information;

“Researchers in the US have recorded neural spikes travelling too slowly in the brain to be explained by conventional signalling mechanisms. In the absence of other plausible explanations, the scientists believe these brain waves are being transmitted by a weak electrical field, and they’ve been able to detect one of these in mice.

“Researchers have thought that the brain’s endogenous electrical fields are too weak to propagate wave transmission,” said Dominique Durand, a biomedical engineer at Case Western Reserve University. “But it appears the brain may be using the fields to communicate without synaptic transmissions, gap junctions or diffusion.”

Running computer simulations to model their hypothesis, the researchers found that electrical fields can mediate propagation across layers of neurons. While the field is of low amplitude (approximately 2–6 mV/mm), it’s able to excite and activate immediate neighbours, which subsequently activate more neurons, travelling across the brain at about 10 centimetres per second.

http://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/48/15800

Welcome to my world 😉 Science can not even pin point "thinking" to the brain. I wrote this article in 2012;http://cosmosclan.blogspot.com.tr/2012/08/life-span-and-entropy.html

Posted by How to make a spacecraft / Uzay gemisi nasıl yapılır on Friday, January 15, 2016

Welcome to my world  Science can not even pin point “thinking” to the brain. I wrote this article in 2012;

https://cosmosclan.blogspot.com.tr/2012/08/life-span-and-entropy.html

(It is also available among my writings here; http://www.alphan.net/writings/ )

Civilization and the scope of subjectivity from Freud to Lacan (2002 essay UvA)

 

Civilization and the scope of subjectivity from Freud to Lacan

 Introduction

What is progress? After all and for all we know Copernicus, Darwin and Freud have respectively nailed our position (and thus our pride) in this immense universe to a speck of dust, a chance of a chance; by placing the location of the earth as rotation around the sun rather than the center of the universe, by evolution of the species and by the unconsciousness in the human subject. Does the fact that we are symbolic beings and that we can structurally and culturally organize for and of certain signs and their signifiers call for a possibility of progress in the face of eternal death or is there a divine will? What is the importance of where any kind of progress  registers? What progressive possibilities do different registers themselves hold? With Freud and Lacan we are called to investigate the uncanny aspects of the post industrial subject.

 Freud’s dynamic, topographical and economic distinctions of the properties of the mind could possibly be the result of the influences of the mechanists of his era, Darwinism and also Schopenhauer who could be thought to have become a system with the unconscious of Freud. Freud was disillusioned with progress as civilization. He writes on p.327 in Civilization and Its Discontents. “…the price we pay for our advance in civilization is a loss of happiness through a heightened sense of guilt” Civilization and the libidinal development of the individual  appear to follow similar patterns of Character formation, sublimation and renunciation. Freud is particularly interested in the guilt involved in renunciation and it’s origins. The renunciation of instinct owing to  fear of aggression by the external authority is followed by the erection of an internal authority – renunciation of instinct owing to a fear of conscience. In Freud’s On Narcissism : An introduction the renunciation of instincts is a prerequisite for the establishment of ego and consciousness. In this text the erection of an internal authority is only hinted at. It is to take take full form as superego in Freud’s Beyond the Pleasure Principle.  The structure of the human mind which produces these agencies of ego and superego is also at their mercy. The origins of a sense of guilt are hidden away in a long forgotten past which drives the compulsion to repeat in the present. The subject most vulnerable from within is also the most distant from the origins of his conscience and its structure.

Lacan presents us with the workings of three orders that make the subject possible namely, the real, the imaginary, the symbolic. His development of Freudian concepts and his unwillingness to compromise on the pessimist edge of Freud brought him outside conventional psychoanalysis and into conflict with for example the school of Anna Freud, which asserts that a healthy ego is possible. Not following Freud but accompanying him through “On Narcissism: an introduction”, Lacan in his paper “On Narcissism” seeks to establish the mirror stage and the two registers of the imaginary and the symbolic. From procreation of species in Freud, Lacan in this paper arrives at procreation of types, that is to say images. Unlike Freud, Lacan does not find any possibility for the existence of an optimal sexual development such as heterosexual love, but ways of confronting the trauma of the Real. Hence the importance of the protection of the species through procreation becomes secondary to the  reproduction of the cultural context which allows for procreation. Lacan introduces a structure of language acquisition whereby children are admitted to the world of adults through  symbolic castration and intelligible communication is made possible. In symbolic castration an infant’s sense of dominating importance for the world of the mother is destroyed through the realization that the mother adheres to an external system and not only to the demands of the child. In the establishment of the symbolic order sexuality is a structural variable, so sexuality for the Lacanian subject is not in biology but in symbolic insertion, in the inscription of language into the flesh, whereas the Freudian subject follows or by perversion deviates from an optimal development.

 

  • External and Internal authority
 1.1     Theory of Instincts: Narcissism and the establishment of ego

 

Freud quotes Schiller as his starting point for his development of a theory of instincts and writes “hunger and love are what moves the world”(Civilization and it’s Discontents, p.308) Ego-love aims to preserve(i.e. satisfy hunger…) the individual subject and object-love aims to preserve the species(love). There is an antithesis between the ego instincts and the libidinal instincts of love directed toward objects. Libido is the life energy of the subject which is mostly sexual.

Advancing his inquiry Freud moves from repressed to repressing forces thus from object instincts to the ego. Through the introduction of the concept of narcissism it became clear that ego is the libido’s original home. Instead of making libido coincide with instinctual energy in general, like Jung, Freud stayed convinced that not all instincts were of the same kind.

 

1.2     Establishment of Super-ego
 1.2.1   Eros and Death

 In his Civilization and It’s Discontents, the pleasure principle, that is the aiming for pleasure and avoidance of unpleasure, aims at satisfaction which can never be fully possible. Referring to his work, Beyond the Pleasure Principle he writes further on “a portion of the instinct is diverted towards the external world …as an instinct of aggressiveness and destructiveness… pressed into the service of Eros…destroying some other thing instead of destroying its own self.”(p.310) Hence “… the evolution of civilization [is] the struggle between Eros and Death, between the instinct of life and the instinct of destruction as it works itself out in the human species.”(p.314) In this respect Freud is dismissive of the religious portrayal of the Devil as a separate agent (from the principles of economic discharge), as the best way out as an excuse for God. Freud quotes Goethe’s Mephistopheles where the Devil himself names his adversary as Eros (nature, power to regenerate) not God (holy, and good)(p.312). 

  • Dynamic, topographical and economic distinctions

  Freud was different from his mechanist contemporaries in his dynamic conception of  mind rather then an all rational and static one. Two years after his graduation from the university of Vienna in 1881 Freud worked under Theodor Meynert, the leading brain anatomist and neuropathologist of his time. There in the Psychiatric Clinic, he got introduced to the new correlations between ideas and neurological processes . His topographical distinction came with his Interpretation of Dreams and his discovery of the preconscious and the unconscious. And in his Beyond the Pleasure Principle, the economic distinction uncovers the death instinct through the principle of constancy. Although pleasure principle appears to drive the purpose of life for human beings Freud further identifies the death instinct as inseparable from Eros.    

Freud in Beyond the Pleasure Principle chp1 is arguing on the principle of constancy asserting a fundamental inclination of the mental apparatus for keeping the level of excitation low. Hence Freud came to realize the vulnerability of the human subject from within Every organism in a sense dies of internal reasons of structural decomposition.

  • The evolution of the human brain

  In Freud’s tongue this is the internalization and condensation of the perceptive and receptive cells. Since “the protection against the stimuli is more important than the reception of the stimuli”{BPPchp4}the outer layer of living organisms would be baked through from the overburdening impact of the external world; specializing and condensing for extending functions as the receptive(to discover the direction and nature of external stimuli) and commander(i.e. regulatory functions). Freud talks about the principle of constancy asserting a fundamental inclination of the mental apparatus for keeping the level of excitation low. Freud’s argument considered along its Darwinian lines, human evolution  is not understood as a bettering but as an adaptation of organic life due to modification of external stimuli. So there is no instinct for perfection, although Freud finds dynamic conditions for its existence he thinks the economic condition ( for the sluggish non-perverted, non-neurotic normal man) does not exist bpp5.  One is inevitably inclined to consider the impossibility of progress in this path since desire cannot be satisfied .Although Freud steers clear from a dogmatic approach, his version of adaptation of organic life involves an oversimplified desire for the procreation of species.

2        The origins of the sense of guilt

Civilization and the libidinal development of the individual  appear to follow similar patterns of Character formation, sublimation and renunciation. For example, although order and cleanliness are important requirements (characters) for civilization their vital necessity is not immediately apparent, they are the result of a series of displacements through time. Likewise in the development of the individual through a process in anal eroticism a group of traits are intensified and the anal character is formed. Sublimation of the individuals instincts by displacing the conditions for their satisfaction, also appears as a feature of cultural developments. Finally cultural frustration in social relationships resonates squarely with the apriori demand of civilization for the renunciation of the powerful instincts of the individual. Hence Freud is clear with his “intention to represent the sense of guilt as the most important problem in the development of civilization and to show that the price we pay for our advance in civilization is a loss of happiness through a heightened sense of guilt”p.327

2.1 Totem and Taboo at the origins of Superego

 Freud is particularly interested in the guilt involved in renunciation and it’s origins. Remorse which presupposes conscience implies the readiness to feel guilt before the deed took place. This proves difficult to uncover the origin of conscience and the origin of the sense of guilt. Excluding a sense of guilt due to remorse, the origins of sense of guilt and hence remorse appears in another work by Freud, Totem and Taboo where he identifies a primal myth; death of the primal father at the hands of his sons who strongly love(he is the provider and rule of law) and hate him(he possesses all the woman). Once satisfied the aggression due to hatred leaves its place to remorse due to love.  By identification with the father the super-ego is set up with the powers of the dead father, like a punishment for the sons aggression, and with restrictions (ie. a taboo such as exogamy) to prevent a repetition of the deed. As time and generation passes no sons ever get free from guilt on the contrary since the aggressiveness against the father was inevitably repeated so was the sense of guilt; repeated, reinforced and carried over to the superego. Therefore civilization appears to  push people to unite through an ever increasing reinforcement of a sense of guilt.

Renunciation of instinctual satisfactions due to the fear of authority and as well as renunciation pressing for punishment due to the fear of superego form the origins of the sense of guilt. Super-ego thus appears as “…a continuation of the severity of the external authority, to which it has succeeded and which it has partly replaced.”(p.320) Through the Reality principle, the immediate aims are sublimated to reach a compromise between the ego-instincts(for the preservation of the individual) and object-instincts(for the preservation of the species-Eros).

3        Freud’s Papers on Technique and the Lacan’s interpretation
 3.1     On narcissism

Lacan in On narcissism in Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, states that one of the most important questions in analytic theory is to know what is the connection between the bonds of transference and the characteristics of the love relation. He intends “to leave intact the empirical totality of the notion of transference, all the while remarking that it is plurivalent and that it acts in several registers at a time in the symbolic, the imaginary and the real. These are not three fields.”( Lacan, Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, p.112-113) The source of therapeutic efficacy is a debated issue and Lacan is at odds with the Anglo Saxon, ego psychology which works with parasitical super-ego.

For Lacan, Freud recognizes the difference in structure of withdrawal from reality in neurosis and in psychosis. In the neurotics refusal to recognize there is a function and hence no problem in naming as imaginary. In the first instance imaginary refers to the subjects relation to its former identifications and in the second place it refers to the relation of the subject with the real. In psychosis however nothing of the sort is to be found, for “if he loses the realization of the real, he doesn’t find any imaginary substitute.”( Lacan, Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, p.116) But what is the psychotic invested to start off with as he reconstructs his world? “…the answer is words…the category of the symbolic.”( Lacan, Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, p.117)

3.2     The two narcissism’s   

To map out the structure of psychoses within the framework of the general theory of libido Freud postulates a condition of narcissism at a primitive stage, not accessible to psychoanalysis, in which the ego drives and libidinal drives are indistinguishable. Freud backed up his theory of the libido with Weissmann’s theory of germ-plasm. Lacan however finds the trigger for this gigantic sexual mechanism not in any sexual partner but in an image. The sexual instincts are crystallized and unleashed in an imaginary relation. Furthermore the libidinal drive is centered on the function of the imaginary. In the imaginary he two narcissism’s take the positions of the relation between constitution of reality and relation with the form of the body. First, there is a narcissism connected with the corporal image making up the unity of the subject including the imaginary source of symbolism.

In animals whatever is good for the perpetuation of a type of species is good for its individual members, for man however the other has a captivating value. “…the second narcissism, is identification with the other, which under normal circumstances, enables man to locate precisely his imaginary and libidinal relation to the world in general. That is what enables him to see in its place and to structure, as a function of this place and of his world, his being”( Lacan, Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, p.125)

3.3     Ego-ideal and ideal ego

 The animal makes a real object coincide with the image within him and the coincidence of the image with a real object strengthens it, gives it substance, embodiment. At this moment behavior is released, such that the subject will be guided towards its object, with the image as go-between.( Lacan, Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, p.138) In man the manifestations of the sexual function, the image, is of lack of adaptation, where we come upon a game of hide and seek between the image and its normal object. But what is the ‘normal’ object of the image isn’t it simply a series of cultural approximations or a natural process? “What is the point?” writes Lacan, “-if not to see what the function of the other, of the human other, is, in the adequation of the imaginary and the real”( Lacan, Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, p.139)

The virtual subject is there where we first saw our ego, outside us in the human form. “The  human being only sees his form materialized, whole, the mirage of himself, outside himself.” (Lacan, Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, p.140) Thus formation of our ideal-ego allows for our entry into the mirror phase.  Lacan postulating that the voice of the other governs the inclination of the plane mirror goes on to argue the regulation of the imaginary depends on something which is located in a transcendent fashion.; on the symbolic connection between human beings. The symbolic relation defines the position of the subject as seeing and also determines the degree of perfection, of completeness, of approximation of the imaginary. It is this very representation which allows for Lacan to draw a distinction between the ideal-ego and the ego-ideal. To find my position within the imaginary structuration, one finds a guide on the level of the symbolic plane beyond the imaginary.

Conclusion

From Freud to Lacan only the structure in which subjectivity is attained appears to change and not the scope of subjectivity. Although with a new (improved?) structure new kinds of registers (such as the imaginary and the symbolic) which form the subject are identified. These new registers in turn can provide for different methods of treatment as well as a better understanding of the symbolic mind. Lacan appears to have achieved a universal theory of subjectivity for all symbolic beings by reasoning the structure of registers, which are independent of the corporality of the individual, without resorting to an optimal development of sexuality or the myth of the primordial father like Freud.

 

Bibliography

 Freud. Civilisation and its Discontents (1930)

Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920) 

Totem and Taboo (1913)

Lacan. Freud’s Papers on Technique 1953 – 1954, On narcissism IX, The two narcissisms X, 

Ego-ideal and ideal ego XI, Zeitlich-Entwicklungsgeschichte XII

Lacan. Ecrits: A Selection. ONE – The mirror stage as formative of the function of the I.(1977) THREE – The function and field of speech and language in psychoanalysis.(1991). SIX – On a question preliminary to any possible treatment of psychosis.(1977).

Essay for the MA course at UvA;

 The Philosophy of Psychoanalysis: Desire of the Other

Lecturer: Drs. Angela Grooten

Essay by Alphan Vardarlı